Pakistan is a populous multiethnic country in South Asia. Having a predominately Indo-Iranian-speaking population, Pakistan has historically and culturally been associated with its neighbors Iran, Afghanistan, and India. Since Pakistan and India achieved independence in 1947, Pakistan has been distinguished from its larger southeastern neighbor by its overwhelmingly Muslim population (as opposed to the predominance of Hindus in India).
Pakistan has struggled throughout its existence to attain political stability and sustained social development. Its capital is Islamabad, in the foothills of the Himalayas in the northern part of the country, and its largest city is Karachi, in the south on the coast of the Arabian Sea. Pakistan is bounded by Iran to the west, Afghanistan to the northwest and north, China to the northeast, and India to the east and southeast. The coast of the Arabian Sea forms its southern border.